Phase II Project Reports

Phase II Reports

The Phase II Final report for MRCSP summarizes the activities of the partnership during Phase II, otherwise known as the Validation Phase, including the field validation projects, regional geologic characterization, regulatory analysis, stakeholder outreach, and CCS implementation assessment.


The oil and gas industry provides a wealth of experience and sophisticated technologies that can be used for modeling, implementing and monitoring of geologic carbon sequestration facilities. Validation testing provides field experience needed to perfect and adapt those techniques to the unique needs of long term carbon storage. The validation-scale geologic field tests, conducted by Battelle, were made possible through facilities and site support provided by FirstEnergy, Duke Energy, DTE Energy, and Core Energy.  

Validation scale testing into the complex and heterogeneous geological regions like the northern Appalachian Basin (FirstEnergy’s R. E. Burger Plant) helped establish familiarity with carbon sequestration technologies in the region. It provided important deep well data points in a strategically valuable portion of the MRCSP region that may hold promise for geologic storage, but requires more characterization for mapping and quantification of storage potential. Read more about the Appalachian Basin field test here: 

Validation scale field testing conducted at the Phase II Cincinnati Arch site (Duke Energy’s East Bend power station) demonstrated good injectivity into the Mt. Simon Sandstone at a depth of about 3500 feet. The Mt. Simon is the reservoir having the largest storage capacity in the region and one of the largest potential storage reservoirs in the US. This was the first known injection test into the Mt. Simon for purposes of qualifying storage potential. Read more about the Mt. Simon Formation field test here:

Mt Simon Formation - Duke Energy East Bend Generating Station Geologic CO₂ Sequestration Field Test (42.3 MB PDF)

Validation scale testing into the Bass Islands formation in Michigan demonstrated the efficacy of carbonates as a potential storage target in the MRCSP region. Heretofore carbonates were not included in the MRCSP’s estimates of regional storage capacity. As a result, carbonates like the Bass Islands, Copper Ridge and others are now considered as potential additions to the MRCSP’s estimated storage potential. Read more about the Michigan Basin field test here:

Michigan Basin Geologic CO₂ Sequestration Field Test (10.4 MB PDF)

The public, legislature, regulators and industry are interested in the safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of sequestration. Engaging stakeholders in the early stages of a field test is key for acceptance. Read about best practices followed for the MRCSP 
Phase II geologic field tests here:

Innovative “piggyback drilling” allowed the MRCSP to leverage ongoing and extensive investments made by local oil and gas drilling companies to gather sequestration data such as core samples from deep geologic formations. The following reports provide results of these piggyback efforts:

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